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What are Mobile App Prototypes? – Explained

mobile app prototype

Designing app prototypes before developing your app is a harmonious blend of art and science that brings numerous benefits to the development process. While coding is crucial, the design stage plays a pivotal role in minimizing costly errors and gaining investor confidence in your idea. Mobile app prototypes serve as a valuable tool, streamlining the design process and providing assurance that your product is heading in the right direction.

Before you dive into the world of app development, it’s crucial to have a clear vision of your app’s purpose and core features. Establishing your app’s objectives, target audience, and unique selling points will help you develop a successful product that meets users’ needs. A well-defined app concept also enables smoother communication with designers and developers, ensuring your idea comes to life as envisioned. Only 25% of app users return after the first day of use.

What are Mobile Prototypes

Mobile app prototypes are close replicas of your product that provide stakeholders, investors, and team members with a visual and experiential understanding of how your app will look and function. These prototypes are typically created without writing any code and can be presented on paper or through a device, allowing users to simulate the app’s features and user interface.

Prototypes are invaluable tools for UX designers as they enable them to test and gather feedback on their app’s design and user experience. While we may have theories about user preferences and interactions, prototypes provide an opportunity to validate these assumptions by placing the app in the hands of real users.

Integrating app prototypes into the digital product design process is essential. They offer developers the chance to receive early feedback and test ideas before committing a significant portion of their budget to developing apps or features that may not be effective.

The use of prototypes can prevent products from ending up in the “Big App Graveyard,” as they allow developers to identify and address issues in functionality or user experience. By utilizing prototypes, developers can uncover potential improvements and ensure their final product meets user expectations.

Budget Considerations

Considerations around budget are crucial when building an app. Coding, being one of the costliest aspects, can lead to unexpected expenses and delays if issues arise during development that could have been identified in the design stage. Prototypes play a vital role in mitigating such mistakes and reducing unnecessary expenditures.

Moreover, prototypes serve as effective tools for conveying the intended UI/UX design and functionality to the development team. By providing a tangible representation of your vision, team members can better grasp the project’s direction and understand their roles in the development process.

In essence, prototypes offer a cost-effective way to test an app without investing excessive time and money into engineering. They provide developers with valuable feedback on the app’s strengths and weaknesses, allowing for timely adjustments before it’s too late.

By incorporating prototypes into the app development process, you can save resources, minimize budgetary risks, and ensure a more streamlined and successful outcome.

Why make a mobile app prototype?

Creating an app prototype offers numerous benefits that contribute to developing the best version of your app while saving time and money. This cost-effective and efficient process yields the following advantages:

1. Validate ideas

Validating ideas is a crucial step in app development, considering the significant investment of time and resources involved. Before committing to the development process, it is essential to ensure the viability and value of your app idea.

While market and competitor research offer insights, prototypes provide a tangible way to assess the potential of your idea. They enable you to experience your concept firsthand and gather valuable feedback from your target audience, allowing you to make informed improvements and adjustments.

Prototypes serve as a powerful tool for understanding the viability and appeal of your idea. By obtaining feedback from ideal users early on, you can identify areas for enhancement and refine your concept to meet their needs effectively. This iterative process helps you build a stronger foundation for your app, increasing its chances of success in the market.

2. To help secure investment

Securing investment for app development often relies on effectively communicating your idea and showcasing the potential of your product. While pitching a concept can be challenging, having a tangible representation significantly simplifies the process.

Using an app prototype to convey your idea and demonstrate the look and feel of your product can greatly enhance your chances of securing funding. Prototypes provide investors with a concrete visualization of your app, allowing them to better understand its functionality, user experience, and market potential.

By presenting an app prototype, you can effectively communicate your vision and capture the attention and interest of potential investors. It enables them to visualize the value and potential of your app, making it easier for them to make informed decisions regarding funding.

An app prototype serves as a powerful tool in your investment-seeking efforts, enabling you to present a compelling and tangible representation of your idea. By showcasing your concept in a tangible form, you enhance your credibility and increase your chances of securing the necessary investment to bring your app to life.

Validating ideas is a crucial step in app development, considering the significant investment of time and resources involved. Before committing to the development process, it is essential to ensure the viability and value of your app idea.

While market and competitor research offer insights, prototypes provide a tangible way to assess the potential of your idea. They enable you to experience your concept firsthand and gather valuable feedback from your target audience, allowing you to make informed improvements and adjustments.

3. Focus your team

Fostering a shared understanding of the product and goals among your team is vital for successful app development. Once you have obtained investment for your idea, utilizing a prototype can serve as a focal point to ensure a clear comprehension of your app’s scope.

By presenting a prototype, you provide a tangible reference that helps all team members grasp the envisioned product comprehensively. It enables everyone to align their efforts and work towards the same objectives.

A prototype acts as a unifying tool, allowing your team to visualize and interact with the app concept, understand its features, and comprehend the desired user experience. This shared understanding facilitates collaboration, enhances communication, and fosters a cohesive approach to achieving project goals.

When your team is on the same page, they can work together more effectively, leveraging their respective expertise and contributions towards the development of the app. A prototype serves as a unifying force, promoting synergy and focus among team members, ultimately leading to a higher likelihood of success in app development.

4. It Helps teams ask questions at the right time

When your development team reviews the app prototype, it prompts them to consider the implementation of your vision. They can identify specific features or functions that may pose challenges or require significant time to develop.

Understanding potential problems or difficulties early on is crucial, especially if you are working within a limited budget or tight timeframe. This knowledge allows you to have informed discussions with investors and make strategic decisions, such as streamlining the app to focus on its core tasks.

The design process is the ideal time to address these questions and concerns. Developers can offer insights into gaps, oversights, or potential issues that may arise during development. By identifying these aspects beforehand, you have the opportunity to proactively address them, saving time and resources that would otherwise be wasted on rework or unexpected roadblocks.

Engaging developers in the design process through the app prototype facilitates collaboration and enables the team to identify potential challenges or areas for improvement. This proactive approach ensures a smoother transition from design to development, setting the stage for a more efficient and successful app development journey.

5. Save time and money

In app development, time and resources are often limited. Prototypes play a vital role in saving both time and money by addressing common challenges before entering the coding phase.

By using prototypes, you can identify and resolve issues early on, reducing the cost of application development due to the changes during the development phase. This proactive approach minimizes the risk of budget overruns and ensures a more efficient use of resources.

Furthermore, prototypes help mitigate the chances of encountering problems that may result in costly re-coding later on. By obtaining feedback from investors and stakeholders early in the process, you can address their concerns and align the app’s development with their expectations, reducing the likelihood of expensive revisions down the line.

By investing time and effort in creating prototypes, you can streamline the app development process, minimize costly errors, and maximize the efficient use of your available resources. This approach not only helps you stay within budget but also enables you to deliver a higher quality app within the desired timeframe.

6. It makes comprehensive planning important

Designing a prototype brings attention to the intricate details of app design, compelling you to address various aspects such as the visual aesthetics, user interface (UI), and user experience (UX). While you may have a general idea of what your app should accomplish, building a prototype forces you to make concrete decisions regarding its overall look and feel.

The design stage is an opportune time to delve into these considerations. It allows you to promptly incorporate changes and feedback, rectifying elements that may not be functioning optimally. By actively engaging with the design process, you can refine the app’s appearance, usability, and user flow, ensuring a more polished and user-friendly end product.

Prototyping encourages comprehensive planning and meticulous attention to detail. It compels you to make informed choices about the visual and experiential aspects of your app, ultimately enhancing its overall quality. By addressing these factors during the design phase, you can swiftly iterate and improve upon your initial concept, resulting in a more refined and successful app.

7. Reduce extra work

To minimize unnecessary work and optimize time and cost savings, it is essential to keep code revisions to a minimum. Prototypes play a crucial role in comprehensive planning by identifying and addressing potential issues before they arise.

Applications consist of various layers, including front-end, services, and databases. If a need to rewrite the code arises, it can have a cascading effect, requiring significant rework across these different sections, which consumes a substantial amount of time.

By leveraging prototypes, you can proactively identify and resolve issues during the design phase, reducing the likelihood of major code revisions later on. This approach helps minimize the investment of time and resources required to address extensive code changes and ensures a more streamlined development process.

Understanding the concept and benefits of prototypes, let’s explore the four main types of app prototypes:

  1. Wireframes: Wireframes are basic visual representations that outline the app’s structure, layout, and content placement.
  2. Low-fidelity prototypes: Low-fidelity prototypes provide a more detailed representation of the app’s visual design and user interface, typically using simple visuals and placeholders.
  3. High-fidelity prototypes (mockups): High-fidelity prototypes offer a more polished and realistic depiction of the app’s visual design and user experience. They often incorporate actual content, graphics, and interactive elements.
  4. Functional prototypes (proof-of-concept): Functional prototypes aim to demonstrate the core functionalities of the app, showcasing its capabilities and interactions without full development.

By utilizing these different types of prototypes, you can effectively communicate your app’s structure, design, and functionality, facilitating better collaboration, reducing rework, and ultimately delivering a more refined and successful app.


A wireframe serves as a two-dimensional outline or blueprint of your app, providing a visual representation of its structure and functionality. It serves as a guide to illustrate how your product will look and operate.

Wireframes encompass the following aspects:

  1. Page structure: Outlines the arrangement and hierarchy of different sections and components within each app screen or page.
  2. Layout: Defines the placement and organization of elements, such as buttons, forms, images, and text, within the app interface.
  3. User flow: Maps the navigation and sequence of screens or interactions that users will follow to accomplish tasks within the app.
  4. Information architecture: Establishes the organization and categorization of content, ensuring intuitive access and efficient user experience.
  5. Functionality: Highlights the key features and interactive elements that enable users to perform specific actions or tasks.
  6. Behaviors: Demonstrates how different elements and components of the app will respond and behave when interacted with, such as button clicks or transitions between screens.

Wireframes primarily focus on communicating the app concept, and thus, they typically adopt a simple black and white visual style, with minimal color or styling. They can be hand-drawn or created digitally, depending on the desired level of detail.

Wireframes play a crucial role in the initial design process, allowing UX designers to conceptualize the app and enabling investors and stakeholders to agree upon its overall functions and structure. Developers also utilize wireframes to identify and address potential problems or challenges before commencing the coding phase. Additionally, wireframes facilitate user testing and serve as a valuable source of feedback, enabling developers to improve subsequent iterations of the app or develop low- or high-fidelity prototypes based on user input.

Benefits of app wireframes

Wireframes are important aspects of the development process because they serve several crucial purposes:

1. They’re user-focused

Wireframes serve as a valuable tool in maintaining a user-focused approach during app development. They enable users, stakeholders, and designers to engage with prototypes, gaining insights into the app’s features and identifying areas that require improvement.

By conducting early user testing, valuable feedback can be gathered to enhance the app’s functionality and user experience. This iterative process keeps the development team focused on solving the core problem that the app aims to address.

Wireframes are often designed without extensive textual content, allowing designers to assess the app’s intuitiveness solely through visual cues. This approach provides a clear understanding of how users will navigate the app and helps identify any potential usability challenges.

By incorporating wireframes into the design process, app developers can ensure that user needs and preferences are at the forefront of their decision-making. This user-centric approach ultimately leads to the creation of apps that effectively meet user expectations, provide a seamless user experience, and successfully solve the intended problem.

2. They’re an effective communication tool

Wireframes serve as an effective communication tool for conveying your product to clients. Often, clients may not be familiar with the technical terminology used in app development, leading to potential misunderstandings or confusion regarding the placement of elements and features.

By utilizing wireframes, developers can proactively address these communication challenges before they become problematic. Wireframes provide a visual representation of the app’s structure and layout, helping clients visualize the spatial requirements for each feature and gain a comprehensive understanding of how all elements will work together.

The early-stage nature of wireframes encourages more candid and honest feedback from stakeholders. People tend to hesitate when criticizing near-finalized work, but they are generally more comfortable expressing their thoughts during the initial stages. Developers should embrace this opportunity to engage stakeholders early on and secure their commitment to the desired app vision.

By leveraging wireframes as a communication tool, developers can bridge the gap between technical concepts and client understanding, ensuring effective collaboration and alignment throughout the app development process.

3. They’re cheap and simple to make

Wireframes offer a cost-effective and straightforward approach to app development. Creating a wireframe doesn’t require significant time or financial investment. Whether hand-drawn or designed using available tools, wireframes efficiently identify and address client and developer assumptions, bringing you closer to the final product while eliminating potential issues that could waste resources during later development stages.

By opting for wireframes, you can quickly visualize the app’s structure and layout, allowing for early identification of any usability or functionality concerns. This early intervention saves both time and money by preventing the need for extensive revisions or rework in later stages of development.

Moreover, wireframes facilitate effective communication between clients and developers, ensuring a shared understanding of the app’s design and functionality. Any discrepancies or misunderstandings can be promptly resolved, resulting in a smoother development process.

Overall, the cost-effectiveness and simplicity of wireframes make them a valuable tool for streamlining app development, reducing potential resource wastage, and promoting efficient collaboration between stakeholders.

What types of wireframes can you use?

There are three common wireframing types that developers use, based on their complexity and detail.

They are:

Low-fidelity wireframes

Low-fidelity wireframes are rudimentary visual representations of your app, focusing on high-level concepts rather than intricate design elements. These rough sketches use block shapes, simple images, and placeholder text to convey the overall structure and user flow of the app. They serve as a tool for gathering feedback and exploring different app directions efficiently, making them ideal for pitching ideas or presenting multiple design avenues.

Mid-fidelity wireframes

Mid-fidelity wireframes offer a balance between detail and simplicity. Created using digital wireframing tools, they provide a more comprehensive representation of the app’s layout and functionality. While still relatively sparse, mid-fidelity wireframes incorporate elements of scale, shading, and basic design elements to highlight specific features.

High-fidelity wireframes

High-fidelity wireframes, often used in later stages of the design process, offer a more detailed view of the app. They include pixel-specific layouts, incorporate images, and may explore complex concepts such as interactive maps or menu systems. High-fidelity wireframes also consider typography to enhance the visual representation.

To summarise, wireframes serve as a starting point to illustrate an app’s basic structure and navigation. Even in their simplest form, they allow clients, users, and stakeholders to envision the app’s user experience. This early interaction provides valuable feedback to improve the product before investing significant time and resources.

Low-Fidelity Mobile App Prototypes

The next stage in the product design journey involves creating a low-fidelity prototype. These prototypes serve as stripped-down versions of your app, focusing on essential elements such as screen layout, basic outlines of app components, accurate sizing and spacing, and rudimentary clickability and navigation between screens.

Low-fidelity prototypes maintain simplicity to ensure that the emphasis remains on screen layout, navigation, and information architecture. Excessive details, colors, and polish are avoided as they can distract from the app’s core functionality. Developers utilize low-fidelity prototypes to identify and address any user experience (UX) issues during the design stage.

These prototypes are invaluable for conducting early-stage user testing and conveying the app’s direction to stakeholders. They help uncover any shortcomings in the product before more advanced user interface (UI) design and interactions are implemented.

Low-fidelity prototypes offer a quick and straightforward means of visualizing concepts, user flows, and information. They facilitate rapid feedback that can be utilized to enhance your app. These prototypes are characterized by their basic and non-complex construction, enabling efficient iteration and refinement.

Benefits of Lo-Fidelity App Prototypes

1. Static prototypes allow you to spend more time on design

Static prototypes provide the advantage of allowing designers to allocate more time to focus on the visual design aspects. Unlike high-fidelity prototypes that require clickable functionality and interactive navigation, static prototypes are not interactive and do not involve the development of these features. This allows designers to dedicate additional time and attention to designing pages, elements, buttons, and other visual design features of the app.

By eliminating the need for interactive functionality, static prototypes streamline the design process and enable designers to refine and polish the visual aspects of the app. This includes aspects such as color schemes, typography, iconography, layout composition, and overall aesthetics. Designers can iterate and experiment with various design elements without the constraints of implementing interactive behaviors.

The static nature of these prototypes also facilitates easier sharing and presentation to stakeholders, clients, and team members. They can provide a clear representation of the intended visual design and allow for effective feedback and collaboration.

Ultimately, static prototypes allow designers to invest more time and effort in creating visually compelling and aesthetically pleasing designs, contributing to the overall quality and appeal of the final product.

2. Clarity

Clarity is a crucial aspect of the app development process, and static prototypes can greatly contribute to achieving it. Many projects encounter issues with budget and timeline due to misunderstandings between stakeholders and developers regarding their respective expectations.

Uncertainty at any stage of app development can lead to unpleasant surprises for stakeholders. Therefore, it is essential to establish a shared understanding of the app’s requirements and goals.

Static prototypes offer a visual representation of the app’s user flow, functionality, and overall design, allowing stakeholders to visualize and interact with the app concept before investing significant resources. By providing a tangible interface with demonstrable interactivity, static prototypes bridge the gap between ideas and reality, enabling stakeholders to experience the app’s potential firsthand.

These prototypes serve as a communication tool, ensuring that all parties involved have a clear understanding of what the app should deliver. Through this visual representation, stakeholders can provide feedback and validate the app’s concept, reducing the risk of investing in an undesired or misaligned product.

By leveraging static prototypes, the development team can ensure that their current vision aligns with stakeholders’ expectations before proceeding to the coding phase. This clarity helps streamline the development process, saving time and resources by avoiding unnecessary rework or revisions based on misunderstandings.

In summary, static prototypes enhance clarity in app development by providing a visual and interactive representation of the app’s functionality, enabling stakeholders to validate the concept and align expectations before investing in further development.

3. Prototypes are easy to change

Prototypes offer the advantage of being easily changeable, facilitating the feedback process. When presenting a basic version of an app, flaws, erroneous assumptions, or even innovative ideas can become apparent. Designers sometimes become emotionally attached to their ideas due to the significant time invested in them.

However, prototypes are not something that people generally become overly attached to. They can be created relatively quickly, allowing for swift modifications based on feedback received. Users also feel more comfortable providing criticism and suggestions for improvement on these early versions, which can greatly enhance the quality of feedback received.

The ease of changing prototypes allows for iterative design and development. It enables designers to refine and enhance the app’s features, functionality, and overall user experience based on the insights gained from user feedback. This iterative approach promotes continuous improvement and increases the likelihood of creating a successful and user-centric app.

In summary, prototypes provide a flexible and adaptable platform for gathering feedback and incorporating necessary changes. Their nature encourages open critique and exploration of new ideas, facilitating the iterative design process and ultimately leading to an improved final product.

4. Everyone knows that the product is far from being complete

Lo-fi prototypes are distinguishable from the final product, as they primarily focus on showcasing the core fundamentals of the app. It is widely understood that these prototypes are not ready for deployment or shipping.

This understanding fosters an environment where all stakeholders recognize that the app is still a work in progress and requires further refinement and changes. This is advantageous compared to scenarios where a highly polished design gives the impression that the app is near completion, leading to unrealistic expectations from investors and executives regarding time and budget constraints.

By presenting a lo-fi prototype, you set appropriate expectations and convey that the development process is ongoing. This allows for open discussions and adjustments to be made based on feedback received during the prototyping phase. It also helps manage stakeholders’ expectations, ensuring they understand that additional time and resources will be needed to achieve the desired final product.

Overall, the transparency provided by lo-fi prototypes ensures that everyone involved recognizes the ongoing development status of the app, minimizing misconceptions and enabling more realistic planning and decision-making throughout the project.

High-fidelity prototypes

High-fidelity prototypes, also known as mockups, are particularly useful in the later stages of the design process when the focus is on refining the finished product.

These prototypes maintain the key characteristics of lo-fi prototypes, such as the layout, outlined elements, spacing, and clickability. However, high-fidelity prototypes provide a higher level of detail and polish.

In a high-fidelity prototype, you can expect to see the following elements:

  1. Interaction and clickability: The prototype allows users to interact with the interface, simulating the actual user experience and demonstrating how different elements respond to user input.
  2. Polished UI design: The visual design of the prototype is more refined, incorporating sophisticated and visually appealing interface elements, color schemes, typography, and overall aesthetics.
  3. Real content: High-fidelity prototypes include actual headlines, content, labels, and other text elements, providing a more realistic representation of the final product.
  4. Data visualization: If the app involves data presentation or visualization, high-fidelity prototypes may showcase these features, giving stakeholders a clear understanding of how data will be displayed and interpreted.


n high-fidelity prototypes, interactions play a significant role and become more complex as the app approaches its final stage. These prototypes closely mimic the user experience of the actual app, incorporating various interactive elements to enhance usability and engagement.

Some of the interactive features you can expect to see in high-fidelity prototypes include:

  1. Micro-interactions: These are subtle, small-scale interactions that provide feedback to users. Examples include icons changing color or shape when clicked, buttons displaying a loading animation, or tooltips appearing when hovering over certain elements.
  2. Scrolling and navigation: High-fidelity prototypes allow users to scroll through content and navigate between different sections or tabs within the app. This simulates the actual navigation experience and helps stakeholders understand the flow and organization of information.
  3. Accordion menus: These expandable/collapsible menus are commonly used to display hierarchical content or provide quick access to different sections or options within an app. High-fidelity prototypes can include accordion menus to demonstrate this functionality.

In addition to interactive elements, high-fidelity prototypes showcase a polished design aesthetic. They feature visually appealing elements such as well-rendered icons, unique fonts, carefully chosen colors, real content (headlines, descriptions, etc.), and high-definition images. These design elements contribute to creating a more immersive and realistic representation of the final app’s look and feel.

While no coding is involved in high-fidelity prototypes, developers can utilize these prototypes to showcase and communicate how the app’s navigation and user interactions will feel. It allows stakeholders to experience the app’s functionality and provides a clearer understanding of the user experience before moving into the development phase.

Development-ready designs

During the development stage, designs should have incorporated and addressed the feedback received during the wireframing and low-fidelity prototyping phases. While feedback is still welcomed, most of the significant questions and concerns should have been addressed by this point.

The purpose of prototypes is to gather information and insights from stakeholders and users about the app. If extensive feedback is still being received at this stage, it may indicate that concerns raised earlier were not adequately addressed.

High-fidelity prototypes closely resemble the final product and provide stakeholders with a realistic representation of the app. They serve as a comparative version, allowing stakeholders to evaluate visual aspects such as color schemes, typography, and overall design. These prototypes often uncover issues that may not have been apparent in earlier stages, such as conflicting colors or typography problems.

In essence, high-fidelity prototypes serve as a valuable tool for demonstrating the final visual aspects of the app before the actual implementation phase begins. They provide a clear and comprehensive understanding of how the app will look and function, helping stakeholders make informed decisions and ensuring that the engineering phase aligns with the desired design vision.

Benefits of hi-fi App Prototypes


Wireframes and low-fidelity prototypes provide a basic representation of an app’s core aspects, but they lack the realism and detailed visual elements of high-fidelity prototypes. High-fidelity prototypes use real copy, elements, and images, offering a more realistic representation of the final product. This level of realism allows designers to evaluate how all design decisions come together and identify any potential issues.

During the hi-fi prototyping stage, designers can assess the synergy between color schemes, shapes, typography, and other visual elements. It provides an opportunity to identify and resolve any inconsistencies or design issues before moving into the engineering process.

By using mockups in the high-fidelity prototyping phase, designers can eliminate potential problems and ensure that all design elements work harmoniously. It allows for fine-tuning and refining the visual aspects of the app to create a cohesive and visually appealing user experience.

Easy to change

High-fidelity prototypes offer the advantage of being relatively easy to change or revise. Despite presenting a version that closely resembles the final product, they still maintain flexibility for incorporating feedback from users and stakeholders. This balance allows for detailed feedback without the need to completely overhaul the underlying code to accommodate changes.

The purpose of high-fidelity prototypes is to gather comprehensive feedback and iterate on the design based on that feedback. The prototype serves as a representation of the final product, enabling stakeholders to provide specific input and suggestions. If adjustments are needed, they can be made without significant code modifications, streamlining the revision process.

The ease of making changes in hi-fi prototypes ensures that refinements can be implemented efficiently and effectively, aligning the design with the evolving requirements and preferences of users and stakeholders.

Winning over doubters

High-fidelity prototypes serve as a powerful tool to win over doubters and gain stakeholder buy-in. While sketches and wireframes may not always be sufficient to convince everyone, hi-fi prototypes offer a more tangible and realistic representation of the final product. This level of detail and accuracy can effectively address the concerns of sceptical decision-makers.

By presenting a hi-fi prototype, stakeholders can experience the app in a way that closely resembles the final product. They can interact with the prototype, explore its features, and gain a better understanding of its functionality and user experience. This immersive experience can help alleviate doubts and build confidence in the proposed design and its potential impact.

The visual fidelity and realism of hi-fi prototypes make them a persuasive tool for showcasing the app’s capabilities and addressing any reservations or skepticism. They allow stakeholders to see the app in action, assess its usability, and provide valuable feedback for further refinement.

Functional Prototypes (Proof-of-concept)

Functional prototypes, also known as proof-of-concept apps, are a distinct type of prototype that focuses on the functionality of the app. Unlike non-functional prototypes like wireframes and hi-fi prototypes, functional prototypes aim to provide a more dynamic and interactive user experience.

These prototypes go beyond static designs and incorporate clickability and navigation, allowing stakeholders to actively engage with the app and experience its functionality firsthand. By simulating how the app would feel and function in a realistic manner, functional prototypes offer users a more app-like experience.

Functional prototypes are clickable, interactive, and mimic the intended user interactions of the final product. They allow stakeholders to navigate through the app’s different screens, interact with its features, and gain a deeper understanding of its functionality and user flow. This level of interactivity enables stakeholders to assess the app’s usability, identify potential issues, and provide valuable feedback for further refinement.

By providing a more immersive and realistic user experience, functional prototypes bridge the gap between conceptual design and practical implementation. They serve as a valuable tool for validating the feasibility and effectiveness of the app’s functionality before investing resources into full-scale development.

Choosing the right prototype

When deciding between functional and non-functional prototypes, there are several key questions to consider:

When Do You Need a Functional Prototype?

What are the requirements?

In many cases, the choice between functional and non-functional prototypes will be influenced by the preferences and priorities of different stakeholders involved in the project. Internal stakeholders, such as team members or business users, are typically more concerned with the app’s functionality and how it addresses their specific needs. On the other hand, external stakeholders, such as investors or clients, may place greater emphasis on the app’s visual appeal and overall user experience.

For instance, if you’re developing a business-oriented app, the functional requirements and solving specific pain points will likely take precedence. In such cases, it may be necessary to create a functional prototype or proof-of-concept to demonstrate how the app works before proceeding with extensive development efforts. While design and aesthetics are still important, they may be considered secondary to the app’s actual functionality.

Ultimately, the nature of the app and the funding source will play a significant role in determining the type of prototype that will have the greatest impact. Consider the specific requirements and expectations expressed by investors and stakeholders during meetings. Some stakeholders may be satisfied with a basic yet functional prototype that showcases the app’s problem-solving capabilities, while others may require a visually appealing prototype that simulates the user experience.

Therefore, it’s crucial to align the chosen prototype type with the priorities and expectations of different stakeholders, taking into account whether the focus is on functionality, visual design, or a combination of both. By understanding the requirements and goals of the project, you can make an informed decision on which prototype approach will have the most significant impact and effectively address the needs of your stakeholders.

How much testing is involved?

Testing plays a crucial role in the development of complex apps with numerous features and elements that need to work together seamlessly. In such cases, when the project requirements indicate a need for extensive testing, a functional prototype can be an ideal solution.

The key advantage of a functional prototype is its ability to closely simulate the user experience of the final app. Although the prototype itself is not yet coded, it is designed with interactive elements that allow users to click, navigate, and interact with different parts of the app.

By using a functional prototype, developers can create an environment that closely resembles the actual app, enabling thorough testing of its functionality, usability, and user flow. This level of realism in the prototype helps identify any issues, bugs, or usability challenges that may arise during actual usage. It provides an opportunity to validate the app’s design decisions, assess the effectiveness of its features, and ensure that all elements work harmoniously together.

Through extensive testing with a functional prototype, developers can gather valuable feedback from users and stakeholders, uncover potential problems, and make necessary refinements or improvements before proceeding to the coding and development phase. This iterative approach saves time, effort, and resources by addressing potential issues early on and ensuring a more refined and reliable end product.

What’s the best way to present your app?

When seeking investors for your project, it’s crucial to consider how to effectively present your app’s capabilities. In some cases, you may need to demonstrate that your app is technically feasible and capable of delivering on its ambitious selling points.

Certain apps may introduce innovative features or solutions that don’t currently exist in the market. While these ideas can be exciting and offer a potential competitive advantage, it is essential to ensure that the reason these solutions don’t exist is not due to technical limitations.

In such scenarios, the functionality of your app becomes paramount in convincing investors and stakeholders that your product is worth investing in. No matter how visually appealing the design, colors, and typography are, they won’t matter if your app fails to solve the issues it claims to address.

By focusing on the functional aspects of your app, you can demonstrate the technical viability and feasibility of your solution. This is where a functional prototype, which closely mimics the app’s functionality, can be invaluable. It allows you to showcase the app’s core features, interactions, and user flow, providing tangible evidence that your product can deliver on its promises.

By presenting a functional prototype to investors, you can effectively communicate the app’s capabilities and demonstrate its potential value. This tangible representation helps investors visualize the app in action, understand its unique selling points, and assess its technical feasibility.

Remember, while design and aesthetics are important, showcasing the functional aspects of your app will be critical in convincing investors and stakeholders of its worth and viability. By emphasizing functionality and demonstrating how your app addresses specific issues or offers unique solutions, you can build confidence and generate interest among potential investors.

What’s your development budget?

Budget constraints are a common reality for app development projects. While some organizations may have substantial budgets, most operate within limitations. In such situations, it may be challenging to allocate funds for both the actual app development and prototyping.

Functional prototyping can be a valuable approach in such cases, as it provides a solid foundation for transitioning into incremental development. By creating a functional prototype, you can save significant time and resources in the long run. The prototype allows you to validate and refine the core functionalities and user experience of the app before investing in full-scale development.

Additionally, the process of creating a functional prototype provides an opportunity to document the app’s specifications, requirements, and functionalities. This documentation can serve as a valuable resource for the development team and stakeholders, ensuring a smoother transition to the subsequent development stages.

By having a well-documented prototype, you can streamline the development process, reduce potential misunderstandings, and accelerate the time to market or final development stages. This approach enables you to make informed decisions, iterate on the app’s design and functionality, and allocate resources more efficiently.

When to Choose a Non-Functional Prototype Like a Wireframe, or Lo-fi or Hi-fi Prototype?

What Stage is Your Idea At?

When your app is in the early stages of development and lacks buy-in or investment, wireframes can be an excellent choice. They offer a straightforward and efficient way to showcase your app concept. While specification documents and verbal presentations have their limits, wireframes provide a tangible visual representation that investors can engage with.

Even if you don’t have funding or guaranteed interest, wireframes can serve as a compelling demonstration. They allow you to quickly communicate your vision and clarify any uncertainties during a pitch. Wireframes act as a simple and low-risk substitute for the actual product, generating interest and sparking discussions among potential investors.

Moreover, wireframes are invaluable for gathering user feedback and validating your app idea. Even hastily drawn wireframes can help you understand how users perceive and interact with your app concept. Their simplicity and focus on core functionalities enable you to iterate and refine your idea based on user insights.

How much time do you have?

Wireframes indeed provide users and stakeholders with a basic representation of the final product. With the availability of professional wireframing tools, creating visualizations becomes more accessible and less demanding.

One of the advantages of wireframes is their ease of sharing among teams, facilitating collaboration and real-time adjustments. Whether you’re working with designers, developers, or other stakeholders, wireframes allow for efficient communication and feedback exchange. Their simplicity and minimalistic design make them an ideal choice when time is limited and you need a quick but effective stand-in for your app.

By focusing on the core structure and layout of your app, wireframes enable you to convey the overall user experience and functionality without getting caught up in finer details. They provide a solid foundation for further design and development iterations, helping you align your team’s vision and gather valuable input from stakeholders.

How important are the visual design elements?

You’re correct that wireframes primarily focus on conveying the core structure and layout of an app, rather than specific design elements. They are indeed a quick and low-cost method for sharing ideas and getting feedback.

However, when it comes to design-focused apps where visual elements play a crucial role in the user experience, wireframes may have limitations. Their generic representation using grey boxes and generic text may not effectively communicate the impact of colors, gradients, contrasts, and other design elements on the overall look and feel of the app. Additionally, wireframes may not fully capture how graphical elements can guide users through the app.

In such cases, where the visual design is a key selling point of the app, a hi-fidelity prototype would be a more suitable choice. Hi-fi prototypes provide a more detailed and realistic representation of the final product, including polished UI design, actual content, and high-definition imagery. They can effectively showcase the visual aspects of the app, allowing stakeholders to experience how the app will look and feel.

For brands with a well-defined visual identity, a hi-fi prototype can better capture and convey the brand’s unique design elements and maintain consistency throughout the app.

In summary, while wireframes serve as a quick and low-risk way to convey ideas, they may not fully capture the visual design aspects of certain apps. For design-focused apps, a hi-fidelity prototype is recommended to showcase the visual elements, maintain brand consistency, and provide stakeholders with a more realistic app experience.